Righting Old Wrongs

This proclamation was given by Missouri governor Christopher S. Bond in 1976.
Christopher S. Bond
Grade Level

WHEREAS, on October 27, 1838, the Governor of the State of Missouri, Lilburn W. Boggs, issued an order calling for the extermination or expulsion of Mormons from the State of Missouri; and

WHEREAS, Governor Boggs’ order clearly contravened the rights to life, liberty, property and religious freedom as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States, as well as the Constitution of the State of Missouri; and

WHEREAS, In this Bicentennial year as we reflect on our nation’s heritage, the exercise of religious freedom is without question one of the basic tenets of our free democratic republic;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, CHRISTOPHER S. BOND, Governor of the State of Missouri, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the State of Missouri, do hereby rescind Executive Order Number 44 dated October 27, 1838, issued by Governor Lilburn W. Boggs.

This text is in the public domain.
Text Dependent Questions
  1. Question
    “Whereas” means “while in contrast.” For example, “He is nice, whereas she is mean.” How do the sentences that begin with “whereas” differ from the sentence that begins with “now”?
    The sentences that begin with “whereas” reference things that happened in the past and contrast with what is happening now.
  2. Question
    What did the governor of Missouri proclaim in 1838?
    That Mormons needed to leave Missouri
  3. Question
    “Contravene” means “to conflict with.” Put this sentence in your own words.
    Governor Boggs’ order contradicted the rights laid out in the Constitution for both the nation and the state.
  4. Question
    What did Governor Bond do? What does “rescind” mean?
    He revoked Governor Boggs’ order. “Rescind” means “to revoke, take back or make invalid.”
Reveal Answers
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Welcome to Learning for Justice—Formerly Teaching Tolerance!

Our work has evolved in the last 30 years, from reducing prejudice to tackling systemic injustice. So we’ve chosen a new name that better reflects that evolution: Learning for Justice.

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