Teaching the Movement 2014

  1. Sean F. Reardon, Elena Tej Grewal, Demetra Kalogrides and Erica Greenberg, “Brown fades: The end of court-ordered school desegregation and the resegregation of American schools,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 31 (2012): 876-904.
  2. For the purposes of this report, the “modern civil rights movement” refers to the events and people active in the struggle for African-American equality from the mid-1950s until passage of major civil rights legislation in the 1960s and beyond.
  3. Terrie Epstein, Interpreting National History: Race, Identity, and Pedagogy in Classrooms and Communities (New York: Routledge, 2009).
  4. Derrick P. Alridge, “The Limits of Master Narratives in History Textbooks: An Analysis of Representations of Martin Luther King Jr.,” Teachers College Record 108 (2006): 662-686.
  5. See, e.g., Deborah Menkart, Alana Murray, and Jenice L. View, eds., Putting the Movement Back Into Civil Rights Teaching: A Resource Guide for Classrooms and Communities, (N.p.: Teaching for Change, 2004).
  6. Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture (New York: Random House, 1993), 13.
  7. Linda M. McNeil, Contradictions of control: School structure and school knowledge. (New York: Routledge Press, 1986). Diana Hess, Controversy in the Classroom: The Democratic Power of Discussion (New York: Routledge, 2009).
  8. Epstein, Interpreting National History: Race, Identity, and Pedagogy in Classrooms and Communities, 9.
  9. Trends toward greater use of standards-based high school exit exams and end-of-course exams are increasing the practical importance of state standards in classrooms across the country. Center on Education Policy, State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2010).
  10. Diane Ravitch, “Who Prepares Our History Teachers? Who Should Prepare Our History Teachers?” The History Teacher 31 (1998).
  11. Our previous report has provided additional models for revising state standards. Teaching the Movement: The State Standards We Deserve. Southern Poverty Law Center, 2012.

p.8 * The report examines the educational standards of all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We use “states” in reference to all 51 entities.

p.9 * Breadth and depth—and the process used to identify these—are discussed in “Our Approach” on p. 13 and shown in Table 2.

Group of adults listening to one person speaking.

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