A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa

This narrative, recounted by African-born freedman Venture Smith to a Connecticut schoolteacher in 1798, may be the oldest autobiography by a black writer in the United States. Smith was born in Africa, was enslaved for nearly three decades in New England and eventually worked to earn his emancipation money at the age of 36.
Venture Smith
Grade Level

This text is part of the Teaching Hard History Text Library and aligns with Key Concepts 5 and 6.

This was the third time of my being sold, and I was then thirty-one years old. As I never had an opportunity of redeeming myself whilst I was owned by Miner, though he promised to give me a chance, I was then very ambitious of obtaining it. I asked my master one time if he would consent to have me purchase my freedom. He replied that he would. I was then very happy, 

knowing that I was at that time able to pay part of the purchase money, by means of the money which I some time since buried. This I took out of the earth and tendered to my master, having previously engaged a free negro man to take his security for it, as I was the property of my master, and therefore could not safely take his obligation myself. What was wanting in redeeming myself, my master agreed to wait on me for, until I could procure it for him. I still continued to work for Col. Smith. There was continually some interest accruing on my master’s note to my friend the free negro man above named, which I received, and with some besides which I got by fishing, I laid out in land adjoining my old master Stanton’s. By cultivating this land with the greatest diligence and economy, at times when my master did not require my labor, in two years I laid up ten pounds. This my friend tendered my master for myself, and received his note for it. 

Being encouraged by the success which I had met in redeeming myself, I again solicited my master for a further chance of completing it. The chance for which I solicited him was that of going out to work the ensuing winter. He agreed to this on condition that I would give him one quarter of my earnings. On these terms I worked the following winter, and earned four pounds sixteen shillings, one quarter of which went to my master for the privilege, and the rest was paid him on my own account. This added to the other payments made up forty four pounds, eight shillings, which I had paid on my own account. I was then about thirty five years old. 

The next summer I again desired he would give me a chance of going out to work. But he refused and answered that he must have my labor this summer, as he did not have it the past winter. I replied that I considered it as hard that I could not have a chance to work out when the season became advantageous, and that I must only be permitted to hire myself out in the poorest season of the year. He asked me after this what I would give him for the privilege per month. I replied that I would leave it wholly with his own generosity to determine what I should return him a month. Well then, said he, if so two pounds a month. I answered him that if that was the least he would take I would be contented. 

Accordingly I hired myself out at Fisher’s Island, and earned twenty pounds; thirteen pounds six shillings of which my master drew for the privilege, and the remainder I paid him for my freedom. This made fifty-one pounds two shillings which I paid him. In October following I went and wrought six months at Long Island. In that six month’s time I cut and corded four hundred cords of wood, besides threshing out seventy-five bushels of grain, and received of my wages down only twenty pounds, which left remaining a larger sum. Whilst I was out that time, I took up on my wages only one pair of shoes. At night I lay on the hearth, with one coverlet over and another under me. I returned to my master and gave him what I received of my six months labor. This left only thirteen pounds eighteen shillings to make up the full sum for my redemption. My master liberated me, saying that I might pay what was behind if I could ever make it convenient, otherwise it would be well. The amount of the money which I had paid my master towards redeeming my time, was seventy-one pounds two shillings. The reason of my master for asking such an unreasonable price, was he said, to secure himself in case I should ever come to want. Being thirty-six years old, I left Col. Smith once for all. I had already been sold three different times, made considerable money with seemingly nothing to derive it from, been cheated out of a large sum of money, lost much by misfortunes, and paid an enormous sum for my freedom. 

This text is in the public domain. Retrieved from http://abolition.nypl.org/content/docs/text/narrative_venture.pdf.
Text Dependent Questions
  1. Question
    How many years did Venture Smith labor to earn the money to buy his own freedom?
    Venture Smith labored to earn the money over the course of five years.
  2. Question
    How much money did Venture Smith earn to buy his own freedom?
    Venture Smith earned in total “seventy-one pounds two shillings.”
  3. Question
    How many jobs did Venture Smith take on to earn his freedom while laboring for his enslaver?
    Venture Smith did the following tasks in addition to his free labor as a slave to earn his own freedom: 1) fishing, 2) cultivating land, 3) cutting wood, 4) threshing grain.
  4. Question
    Why did Venture Smith’s enslaver ask for such an “unreasonable” amount of money?
    Venture Smith’s enslaver asked for such an unreasonable amount of money to “secure himself in case [Venture] should ever come to want.” The enslaver wanted extra money for when he thought Venture would fall into poverty and come back to him with needs or debts.
  5. Question
    How did Venture Smith feel about earning his freedom?
    Venture Smith was proud of his “diligence and economy” in earning and saving the money. He bought only one pair of shoes with the extra money he earned, saving the rest as he slept on a hearth at night. He was aware of how unfair and impossible the circumstances of his situation were as he tried to earn emancipation, saying, “I had already been sold three different times, made considerable money with seemingly nothing to derive it from, been cheated out of a large sum of money, lost much by misfortunes, and paid an enormous sum for my freedom.”
  6. Question
    What impediments stood between Venture Smith and his freedom?
    Answers may vary. Venture Smith might never have been freed if his enslaver did not agreed to free him, his enslaver did not honor the promise, his friend had not tendered the money to his enslaver, or if his enslaver had asked for more money, for example.
Reveal Answers